1. Hugh Tait, The Golden Age of Venetian Glass, London: Trustees of The British Museum, 1979.

  2. These finds were published in Yael Israeli and Natalya Katsnelson, “Refuse of a Glass Workshop of the Second Temple Period from Area J,” in Jewish Quarter Excavations in the Old City of Jerusalem, Conducted by Nahman Avigad, 1969–1982, v. 3, Area E and Other Studies: Final Report, ed. Hillel Geva, Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2006, pp. 411–460.

  3. See Nahman Avigad, Discovering Jerusalem, Nashville: T. Nelson, [1983].

  4. Friederike Naumann-Steckner, “Depictions of Glass in Roman Wall Paintings,” in Roman Glass: Two Centuries of Art and Invention, ed. Martine Newby and Kenneth Painter, London: Society of Antiquaries of London, 1991, pp. 86–98.

  5. For a recent overview of mold-blown glass, see Karol B. Wight, “The Mold-Blowing Process,” in Christopher S. Lightfoot, with contributions by Zrinka Buljević and others, Ennion, Master of Roman Glass, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014, pp. 48–55.

  6. See Hugh Tait, “Venice: Heir to the Glassmakers of Islam or of Byzantium?,” in Islam and the Italian Renaissance, ed. Charles Burnett and Anna Contadini, Warburg Institute Colloquia, v. 5, London: The Warburg Institute, University of London, 1999, pp. 77–104; and William Gudenrath, “Enameled Glass Vessels, 1425 B.C.E.–1800: The Decorating Process,” Journal of Glass Studies, v. 48, 2006, pp. 23–70.

  7. Hugh Tait, “The Palmer Cup and Related Glasses Exported to Europe in the Middle Ages,” in Gilded and Enamelled Glass from the Middle East, ed. Rachel Ward, London: The British Museum, 1998, pp. 50–55.

  8. See The Aldrevandin Group in A Historical Overview of Glassblowing in Venice.

  9. See Altino: Glass of the Venetian Lagoon, ed. Rosa Barovier Mentasti and Margherita Tirelli, Treviso, Italy: Vianello, 2010.

  10. For more on Torcello and its glassmaking industry, see Lech Leciejewicz, “How to Date the Glass-Making Workshop in Torcello?,” Archaeologia Polona: Journal of Archaeology, v. 45, 2007, pp. 99–104, online at (accessed July 24, 2015).

  11. The Italian name has been used here, rather than its English equivalent, “puffer,” because soffietta has been widely adopted today by studio glass artists, instructors, and glass historians. In addition, the tool was probably invented in Venice. The literal translation of the closely related word soffietto is “bellows.”

  12. The Palmer Cup was discussed in The Medieval Period, The Islamic World.

  13. For a more complete study of enameling (and gilding) on glass vessels, see William Gudenrath, “Enameled Glass Vessels, 1425 B.C.E.–1800: The Decorating Process,” Journal of Glass Studies, v. 48, 2006, pp. 23–70.

  14. Works by Giuseppe Briati in The Corning Museum of Glass include two girandoles made about 1750 (2014.3.20).

  15. For a thorough study of this period, see Rosa Barovier Mentasti, Il vetro veneziano, Milan: Electa, 1982, pp. 179–183.

  16. Works from Venetian glasshouses that were displayed at the Paris world’s fair of 1867 are shown in The Illustrated Catalogue of the Universal Exhibition, published with the Art Journal, London and New York: Virtue [1868], pp. 33 (Salviati display), 101 (Salviati chandelier), and 105–107 (Italian glass). The Corning Museum of Glass collection includes a goblet made in Venice in the mid-1860s (79.3.1115).

  17. This is the subject of the last section of this publication, which compares Venetian glass of earlier (late 15th to mid-18th centuries) and later (second half of the 19th century through the 20th century) periods.

  18. For more information, see Helmut Ricke and Eva Schmitt, Italian Glass: Murano, Milan, 1930–1970. The Collection of the Steinberg Foundation, New York: Prestel, 1997.

  19. Mary P. Merrifield, Original Treatises on the Arts of Painting, v. 2, New York: Dover Publications, 1967, pp. 526 and 528. Also cited in Tait [Note 1], p. 26.

  20. See Gudenrath [Note 13], pp. 50–58.

  21. For a complete study of Venetian glassmaking developments from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance, see M. Verità, “L’invenzione del cristallo muranese: Una verifica analitica della fonti storiche,” Rivista della Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, v. 15, no. 1, January/February 1985, pp. 17–29. For a more recent discussion of the same subject in English, see Koen Janssens, ed., Modern Methods for Analysing Archaeological and Historical Glass, 2 vv., Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

  22. Recent translations into English (with analysis) of two key period works on glassmaking have made this subject more accessible. A batch book of about 1560 and the most important book from the Renaissance on glassmaking are now readily available. See Glass Recipes of the Renaissance: Transcription of an Anonymous Venetian Manuscript, ed. Cesare Moretti and Tullio Toninato, English translation and additional notes by David C. Watts and Cesare Moretti, [Barnet, U.K.]: Watts Pub., 2011; and Antonio Neri, L’Arte vetraria = The Art of Glass, translated and annotated by Paul Engle, 3 vv., Hubbardston, Massachusetts: Heiden & Engle, 2003–2007.

  23. The standard reference on the subject of contemporary recipes for colored and specialty glasses is Woldemar A. Weyl, Coloured Glasses, Sheffield, U.K.: Society of Glass Technology, 1999.

  24. For an account of the period of crisis, see Rosa Barovier Mentasti, Il vetro veneziano, Milan: Electa, 1982, pp. 179–183.